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QLLM305 Cartels, Collusion and Competition Law (Sem 1)

Module Description

The Directorate General for Competition of the European Commission states that a cartel is a group of similar, independent companies which join together to fix prices, to limit production or to share markets or customers between them.

Instead of competing with each other, cartel members rely on each others' agreed course of action, which reduces their incentives to provide new or better products and services at competitive prices. As a consequence, their clients (consumers or other businesses) end up paying more for less quality. This is why cartels are illegal under the competition legislations of a vast number of jurisdictions and why competition authorities impose heavy fines on companies involved in a cartel.

Since cartels are illegal, they are generally highly secretive and evidence of their existence is not easy to find. The 'leniency policy' encourages companies to hand over inside evidence of cartels to competition authorities. This results in the cartel being destabilised. In recent years, most cartels have been detected by competition authorities around the world after one cartel member confessed and asked for leniency, though the authorities also successfully continue to carry out its own investigations to detect cartels.


This module seeks to give students a thorough understanding of cartel practices, collusion and their assessment by competition authorities. Students will be able to identify the different types of cartel practices, the means through which these practices materialise, the harm these practices give rise to.

Most importantly, there will be an emphasis on the evolutionary aspects of cartel policymaking and competition law enforcement in this area, given the increasing proliferation of cartels globally and the significant harm they give rise to. Although this is an advanced module, no previous knowledge of the subject is required.

Applicable programmes

  • LLM in Commercial and Corporate Law
  • LLM in Competition Law
  • LLM in Law and Economics
  • MSc Law and Finance
  • Laws (General)
  • LLM Flexible Study.

Mode of Assessment

5,000 word course essay


22.5 Credits

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