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QLLM384 Law of the Sea, Navigational Freedoms and Practice (Sem 2)

Cannot take with QLLM451/QLLM452.

Module description

It is a statistical fact that “around 80 per cent of the volume of international trade in goods is carried by sea, and the percentage is even higher for most developing countries” (UNCTAD/RMT, 2015 / IMO, 2016). The above statement is however more accurate when re-phrased as to literally affirm that “around 80 per cent of the volume of international trade in goods is carried by ships,...” and hence this module places its immediate focus upon their navigational freedoms and the evolving practice of commercial shipping in the 21st century.

  • The international ocean regime and contemporary legal order
  • Nationality of ships and the freedom of navigation
  • Passage regimes
  • Navigation in Special and Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas (including pilotage conditions)
  • The new IMO Polar Code for navigation
  • Ships in distress and places of refuge
  • Ship-to-ship activities within coastal maritime zones
  • Unlawful acts against the safety of navigation
  • Navigation in High Risk Areas
  • Detention Prompt release of a vessel and her crew
  • The future of international navigation law: from e-Navigation and Sea Traffic Management to Unmanned ships and autonomous systems.



Applicable Groupings

  • LLM in Public International Law
  • LLM in Environmental Law
  • LLM in International Shipping Law
  • Laws (General)
  • LLM Flexible Study.

Mode of Assessment

2.15 hour written examination


22.5 credits

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