Professor Christopher Millard, LLB, MA, LLM, Solicitor of the Senior Courts of England and Wales
Professor of Privacy and Information Law
Christopher Millard is Professor of Privacy and Information Law and head of the Cloud Legal Project in the Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary University of London. He is also a Research Associate at the Oxford Internet Institute and is Of Counsel to the law firm Bristows. He has over 30 years experience in technology law, both in academia and legal practice.
His first book, Legal Protection of Computer Programs and Data (Sweet & Maxwell, 1985), was one of the earliest international comparative law works in the field and he has since published widely on legal and regulatory issues relating to information technology, communications, privacy, e-commerce, and Internet law. Since 2008 his main research focus has been cloud computing. He is co-author of Cloud Computing Law (Oxford University Press, 2013) and is a founding editor of the International Journal of Law and IT and of International Data Privacy Law.
Christopher is a Fellow and former Chairman of the Society for Computers & Law, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a past-President of the International Federation of Computer Law Associations, and a past-Chair of the Technology Law Committee of the International Bar Association. He was a member of the OECD’s Steering Group on Contractual Solutions for Transborder Data Flows (2000-01) and since 2002 he has been a member of the International Chamber of Commerce’s Task Force on Privacy and Personal Data Protection.
Before he joined Bristows in 2008, Christopher was head of the global privacy practice at Linklaters and prior to that he was a partner at Clifford Chance. He has twice been designated Internet and eCommerce Lawyer of the Year by the International Who's Who of Business Lawyers.
Christopher Millard’s current research interests are cloud computing law and regulation, privacy and information law, and the legal implications of emerging technologies.
Christopher has led the Cloud Legal Project since it was established in 2009 and has been Joint Director (with Prof Jon Crowcroft of the University of Cambridge) of the Microsoft Cloud Computing Research Centre since its launch in 2014. He is also a principal investigator on the EU-funded Cloud Accountability Project - A4Cloud (2012-2016).
1. Cloud Computing Law (Oxford University Press, 2013)
2. Data Protection Laws of the World (Sweet & Maxwell, 1998-2002)
3. Legal Protection of Computer Programs and Data (Carswell / Sweet & Maxwell, 1985)
1. “Data Privacy in the Clouds” in Graham & Dutton (eds.), Society and the Internet (Oxford University Press, 2014)
2. "Communications Privacy" in Walden (ed.), Telecommunications Law (4th ed., Oxford University Press, 2012)
3. "Copyright" in Reed (ed.), Computer Law (7th ed., Oxford University Press, 2011)
4. Contributor to Concise European IT Law, Buellesbach, Poullet and Prins (eds.) (2nd ed., Kluwer, 2010)
5. "Data Protection" in Haftke (ed.), A Practitioner's Guide to the Regulation of the Internet (2nd ed., City & Financial Publishing, 2001)
6. “Copyright in Cyberspace” in Strauss (ed.) New Technologies, Global Markets and Territoriality of Laws: A Challenge for Intellectual Property (AIPPI, 1998)
7. "Intellectual Property Aspects of Technology Transfers" (co-author) in Rubin (ed.), International Technology Transfers (Graham & Trotman / Martinus Nijhoff, 1995)
8. "United Kingdom" in Jongen & Meijboom (eds.), Software Protection in the EC (Kluwer, 1993)
9. "Data Protection" in Data Communications Handbook (CommEd Publishing, 1993)
10. "Contractual Issues of EDI" in Walden (ed.), EDI and the Law (Blenheim Online, 1989)
Selected Articles and Research Papers
1. “Policy, Legal and Regulatory Implications of a Europe-Only Cloud”, (with Kuan Hon, Chris Reed, Jatinder Singh, Ian Walden and Jon Crowcroft). Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper, available (21 November, 2014)
2. “Regional Clouds: Technical Considerations”, (with Jatinder Singh, Jean Bacon, Jon Crowcroft, Anil Madhavapeddy, Thomas Pasquier and Kuan Hon). University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report, available (November 2014)
3. “Deploying Medical Sensor Networks in the Cloud – Accountability Obligations from a European Perspective”, (with Karin Bernsmed and W. Kuan Hon), 2014 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing, available (22 April 2014)
4. “Cloud Accountability: The Likely Impact of the Proposed EU Data Protection Regulation”, (with W. Kuan Hon, Eleni Kosta and Dimitra Stefanatou), Queen Mary School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 172/2014, Tilburg Law School Research Paper No. 07/2014, available (8 March 2014)
5. “Negotiating Cloud Contracts – Looking at Clouds from Both Sides Now”, (with Kuan Hon and Ian Walden), Stanford Technology Law Review 81 (January 7, 2013)
6. “Cloud Computing vs Traditional Outsourcing – Key Differences”, co-authored with Kuan Hon, Computers and Law, Vol 23, Issue 4, (October / November 2012).
7. “UK G-Cloud v1 and the impact on cloud contracts” (with Kuan Hon and Ian Walden), Communications Law (2012, vol. 17, no. 3: 78-86).
8. “Data Export in Cloud Computing: How can Personal Data be Transferred Outside the EEA? – The cloud of unknowing, part 4"[PDF] (with Kuan Hon), SCRIPTed (2012, vol. 9, no. 1: 25-63)
9. “Data Protection Jurisdiction and Cloud Computing: when are cloud users and providers subject to EU data protection law? – The cloud of unknowing, part 3” (with Kuan Hon and Julia Hörnle), International Review of Law, Computers and Technology, (2012, vol. 26, nos. 2-3: 129-164)
10. “Who is responsible for ‘personal data’ in cloud computing? The cloud of unknowing, part 2” (with Kuan Hon and Ian Walden), International Data Privacy Law, (2012, vol. 2, no. 1: 3-18)
11. “The problem of ‘personal data’ in cloud computing: what information is regulated? The cloud of unknowing, part 1” (with Kuan Hon and Ian Walden), International Data Privacy Law, (2011, vol. 1, no. 4: 211-228).
12. “Defining ‘personal data’ in e-social science” (with Kuan Hon), Information, Communication & Society, (2012, vol. 15, no. 1: 66-84).
13. “Contracts for clouds: comparison and analysis of the Terms and Conditions of cloud computing services” (with Simon Bradshaw and Ian Walden), International Journal of Law and Information Technology (2011, vol. 19, no. 3: 187-223).
14. “The Terms They Are A-Changin’… Watching Cloud Contracts Take Shape” (with Simon Bradshaw and Ian Walden), Brookings Institute Issues in Technology Innovation (2011, no. 7, 1-12)
15. “The Future of Privacy (2): what might Privacy 2.0 look like?” Data Protection Law & Policy (2008, vol.5, issue 1)
16. “The Future of Privacy (1): Privacy 1.0 – the need for change”, Data Protection Law & Policy (2007, vol. 4, issue 11)
17. “Tissue Samples and Graffiti: the Article 29 Working Party consider the meaning of personal data” (with Peter Church), Computers & Law (Aug/Sep 2007)
18. “Binding Corporate Rules: the way ahead clears” (with Peter Church), Data Protection Law & Policy (2005, vol. 2, issue 5)
19. "Data protection: the validity of employee consents" (co-author), IT Law Today (Feb 2002)
[not available online]
20. "Four key challenges for Internet and E-commerce lawyers", Computer Law & Security Review
(2000, vol.16, no. 2: 75-77)
21. "Data Protection and the Internet", Computers and Law (Feb/Mar 1999)
22. "Impact of the EU Data Protection Directive on Transborder Data Flows”, Information Security Technical Report (01/1997)
23. “Commercial transactions on the global information infrastructure: a European perspective" (with Robert Carolina), John Marshall Journal of Computer and Information Law (1996, vol. XIV, no. 2)
24. "Regulation of direct marketing", Commercial Lawyer, (Sep 1996)
[not available online]
25. "Cyberspace and the 'no regulation' fallacy", Global Telecoms Business Yearbook 1995
[not available online]
26. "The Internet demystified" (co-author), Computers and Law (Dec 1994 / Jan 1995)
[not available online]
27. "Impact of the software directive on contracts", International Computer Lawyer (Jan 1993)
[not available online]
28. "Spectrum management: the legal implications of reform in the UK", Telecommunications Policy, (1992, vol. 16, issue 8: 657-665)
29. “Software escrow arrangements and the Insolvency Act 1986”, Computer Law & Security Review (1989, vol. 4, issue 5: 18-20)
30. “Software licensing”, Computer Law & Security Review (1987, vol. 3, issue 4: 8-11)
Selected organisational roles
- Member: International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Task Force on Privacy and Protection of Personal Data (since 2002)
- Member: Advisory Board for the Framework for Responsible Research and Innovation in ICT (2011–2014)
- Member: UK Public-Private Forum on Identity Management (2006-2008)
- Co-Chair: Technology Law Committee of the International Bar Association (2002-2004)
- Member: OECD Steering Group on Contractual Solutions for Transborder Data Flows (2000-2001)
- President: International Federation of Computer Law Associations (1994-1996)
- Chair: Society for Computers & Law (1994-1996)
News and media
- Launch of the Microsoft Cloud Computing Research Centre
- Three introductory videos by Christopher Millard on cloud computing law and regulation
- ‘Debating Europe’ video clips of Christopher Millard’s critique of the EU data protection proposals and comments on regulation of the Internet
- Proposed EU Data Protection laws unlikely to promote cloud computing, warns Professor Millard
Recent reviews in professional directories
- “Christopher Millard is a real leader in the field of IT, and is admired for his work for companies, NGOs and in academic circles regarding international data protection and privacy law.” Chambers and Partners, 2014
- “Christopher Millard is a venerable figure in the IT sphere. He has a wealth of experience in the field of privacy and information law, and his advice in this regard is sought after across the academic, political and commercial spheres.” Chambers and Partners, 2013
- “The deeply experienced Christopher Millard is highly recommended for his knowledge of the legal aspects of cloud computing.” Chambers and Partners, 2012
- Member of the Institute of Computer and Communications Law (ICCL)